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Insights into Gene Regulatory Networks in Chondrocytes

by 1,2 and 3,*
1
Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
2
Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
3
Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8588, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246324
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 December 2019 / Published: 15 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Processes in Chondrocyte Biology)
Chondrogenesis is a key developmental process that molds the framework of our body and generates the skeletal tissues by coupling with osteogenesis. The developmental processes are well-coordinated by spatiotemporal gene expressions, which are hardwired with gene regulatory elements. Those elements exist as thousands of modules of DNA sequences on the genome. Transcription factors function as key regulatory proteins by binding to regulatory elements and recruiting cofactors. Over the past 30 years, extensive attempts have been made to identify gene regulatory mechanisms in chondrogenesis, mainly through biochemical approaches and genetics. More recently, newly developed next-generation sequencers (NGS) have identified thousands of gene regulatory elements on a genome scale, and provided novel insights into the multiple layers of gene regulatory mechanisms, including the modes of actions of transcription factors, post-translational histone modifications, chromatin accessibility, the concept of pioneer factors, and three-dimensional chromatin architecture. In this review, we summarize the studies that have improved our understanding of the gene regulatory mechanisms in chondrogenesis, from the historical studies to the more recent works using NGS. Finally, we consider the future perspectives, including efforts to improve our understanding of the gene regulatory landscape in chondrogenesis and potential applications to the treatment of chondrocyte-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene regulatory networks; next-generation sequencers; chondrogenesis; Sox9 gene regulatory networks; next-generation sequencers; chondrogenesis; Sox9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hojo, H.; Ohba, S. Insights into Gene Regulatory Networks in Chondrocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6324.

AMA Style

Hojo H, Ohba S. Insights into Gene Regulatory Networks in Chondrocytes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(24):6324.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hojo, Hironori; Ohba, Shinsuke. 2019. "Insights into Gene Regulatory Networks in Chondrocytes" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 24: 6324.

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