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Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Pathway in Colorectal Cancer and Its Tumor Microenvironment

A Snapshot of The Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer: The Liquid Biopsy

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Medical Oncology Department, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), Alcalá University, 28034 Madrid, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cancer (CIBERONC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Laboratorio de Oncología Molecular, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6016;
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Translational Research on Colorectal Cancer)
The molecular profile of liquid biopsies is emerging as an alternative to tissue biopsies in the clinical management of malignant diseases. In colorectal cancer, significant liquid biopsy-based biomarkers have demonstrated an ability to discriminate between asymptomatic cancer patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, this non-invasive approach appears to provide relevant information regarding the stratification of tumors with different prognoses and the monitoring of treatment responses. This review focuses on the tumor microenvironment components which are detected in blood samples of colorectal cancer patients and might represent potential biomarkers. Exosomes released by tumor and stromal cells play a major role in the modulation of cancer progression in the primary tumor microenvironment and in the formation of an inflammatory pre-metastatic niche. Stromal cells-derived exosomes are involved in driving mechanisms that promote tumor growth, migration, metastasis, and drug resistance, therefore representing substantial signaling mediators in the tumor-stroma interaction. Besides, recent findings of specifically packaged exosome cargo in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts of colorectal cancer patients identify novel exosomal biomarkers with potential clinical applicability. Furthermore, additional different signals emitted from the tumor microenvironment and also detectable in the blood, such as soluble factors and non-tumoral circulating cells, arise as novel promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response prediction. The therapeutic potential of these factors is still limited, and studies are in their infancy. However, innovative strategies aiming at the inhibition of tumor progression by systemic exosome depletion, exosome-mediated circulating tumor cell capturing, and exosome-drug delivery systems are currently being studied and may provide considerable advantages in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; tumor microenvironment; liquid biopsy; exosomes colorectal cancer; tumor microenvironment; liquid biopsy; exosomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera, M.; Galindo-Pumariño, C.; García-Barberán, V.; Peña, C. A Snapshot of The Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer: The Liquid Biopsy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6016.

AMA Style

Herrera M, Galindo-Pumariño C, García-Barberán V, Peña C. A Snapshot of The Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer: The Liquid Biopsy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(23):6016.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herrera, Mercedes, Cristina Galindo-Pumariño, Vanesa García-Barberán, and Cristina Peña. 2019. "A Snapshot of The Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer: The Liquid Biopsy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 23: 6016.

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