Next Article in Journal
Pemafibrate Prevents Retinal Pathological Neovascularization by Increasing FGF21 Level in a Murine Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Azathioprine Has a Deleterious Effect on the Bone Health of Mice with DSS-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Impacts of the BRCA1-mTORC2 Interaction in Breast Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exploring the Interface between Inflammatory and Therapeutic Glucocorticoid Induced Bone and Muscle Loss
Open AccessArticle

CK2.3, a Mimetic Peptide of the BMP Type I Receptor, Increases Activity in Osteoblasts over BMP2

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
3
Christiana Care Hospital, Newark, DE 19716, USA
4
Department of Biology, University of Michigan, Flint, MI 48502, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235877
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 23 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Growth and Osteoporosis)
Bone is one of the most important organs in the human body. It provides structure, function, and protection for other vital organs; therefore, bone maintenance and homeostasis are critical processes. As humans age, their bone mineral density decreases, which leads to diseases like osteoporosis. This disease affects one in two women and one in five men aged 50 and over. As the aging population increases, the interest and significance of studying this debilitating bone disease becomes more relevant. Current therapeutic products for osteoporosis have many side effects and can be taken for a limited number of years. Most therapeutic products only focus on decreasing bone resorption, not increasing bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is an essential growth factor that drives osteoblast differentiation and activity and is essential for bone formation. However, usage in the clinic is unsuccessful due to several side effects. Recently, a signaling disparity in bone marrow stromal cells within the bone morphogenetic protein pathway that led to decreased bone morphogenetic protein 2 responsiveness was identified in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis. However, it is unclear how other cell populations, especially osteoblasts, which are key players in bone remodeling, are affected and whether the bone morphogenetic protein pathway is affected during osteoporosis. Our research group designed a novel peptide, casein kinase 2.3, that acts downstream of the bone morphogenetic receptor type Ia and increases bone mineralization in murine cells and primary bovine osteoblasts. The aim of the study presented here was to compare the responsiveness of osteoblasts to bone morphogenetic protein 2 and casein kinase 2.3, especially in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis. Mature osteoblasts were extracted from patients diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteoarthritis from Christiana Care Hospital in Newark, Delaware. They were stimulated with either bone morphogenetic protein 2 or casein kinase 2.3, and their effect on osteoblast activity was determined. The osteoporotic patients showed no mineralization response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulation, while the osteoarthritis patients significantly responded to bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulation. Furthermore, markers for osteoblast activity were increased by casein kinase 2.3, which was in sharp contrast to bone morphogenetic protein 2. This further supports a major bone morphogenetic protein signaling disparity in both the elderly and those suffering with osteoporosis. Both patient types did significantly respond to casein kinase 2.3. Further analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway could lead to new therapeutic products for osteoporosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; femoral head; osteoarthritis; BMP2; CK2.3; BMD osteoporosis; femoral head; osteoarthritis; BMP2; CK2.3; BMD
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Weidner, H.; Yuan Gao, V.; Dibert, D.; McTague, S.; Eskander, M.; Duncan, R.; Wang, L.; Nohe, A. CK2.3, a Mimetic Peptide of the BMP Type I Receptor, Increases Activity in Osteoblasts over BMP2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5877.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop