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Open AccessReview

The Changing Landscape of Pharmacotherapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Cardiovascular Outcomes

by Linda Wu 1,* and Jenny E. Gunton 2,3,4
1
Department of Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
2
Centre for Diabetes, Obesity and Endocrinology, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
3
Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
4
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2145, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235853
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes)
The prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has always been a primary concern in patients with type 2 diabetes. Modern trials of glucose-lowering therapies now assess major adverse cardiac events as an endpoint in addition to the effects on glycaemic control. Whilst the data on the efficacy of intensive glucose lowering on reducing cardiovascular risk are limited, there are now increasing numbers of glucose-lowering therapies that have proven cardiovascular benefit independent of glucose lowering. This review will summarise the available literature on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to metformin, sulphonylureas, di-peptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, acarbose and insulin. In addition, new paradigms in diabetes management and the importance of treatment selection based on considerations including but not limited to glycaemic control will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular risk; cardiovascular outcomes; glycaemic control; glucose lowering therapy diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular risk; cardiovascular outcomes; glycaemic control; glucose lowering therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, L.; Gunton, J.E. The Changing Landscape of Pharmacotherapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Cardiovascular Outcomes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5853.

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