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The Novel Perspectives of Adipokines on Brain Health

1
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 11 Yuk Choi Road, Hung Hum, Hong Kong
2
Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 11 Yuk Choi Road, Hung Hom, Hong Kong
3
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 11 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
4
Division of Kinesiology, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 5 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225638
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines 2.0)
First seen as a fat-storage tissue, the adipose tissue is considered as a critical player in the endocrine system. Precisely, adipose tissue can produce an array of bioactive factors, including cytokines, lipids, and extracellular vesicles, which target various systemic organ systems to regulate metabolism, homeostasis, and immune response. The global effects of adipokines on metabolic events are well defined, but their impacts on brain function and pathology remain poorly defined. Receptors of adipokines are widely expressed in the brain. Mounting evidence has shown that leptin and adiponectin can cross the blood–brain barrier, while evidence for newly identified adipokines is limited. Significantly, adipocyte secretion is liable to nutritional and metabolic states, where defective circuitry, impaired neuroplasticity, and elevated neuroinflammation are symptomatic. Essentially, neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory properties of adipokines underlie their neuroprotective roles in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, adipocyte-secreted lipids in the bloodstream can act endocrine on the distant organs. In this article, we have reviewed five adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, chemerin, apelin, visfatin) and two lipokines (palmitoleic acid and lysophosphatidic acid) on their roles involving in eating behavior, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors in the brain. Understanding and regulating these adipokines can lead to novel therapeutic strategies to counteract metabolic associated eating disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, thus promote brain health. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipokine; adipose-brain axis; brain health; neurodegeneration; depression adipokine; adipose-brain axis; brain health; neurodegeneration; depression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, T. .-Y.; Cheng, K. .-Y.; Hoo, R. .-C.; Siu, P. .-F.; Yau, S.-Y. The Novel Perspectives of Adipokines on Brain Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5638.

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