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Open AccessReview

Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P)/ S1P Receptor Signaling and Mechanotransduction: Implications for Intrinsic Tissue Repair/Regeneration

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine-Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
2
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences “Mario Serio”-Unit of Molecular Biology, University of Florence, Viale GB Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225545
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids: Metabolic Functions and Disorders)
Tissue damage, irrespective from the underlying etiology, destroys tissue structure and, eventually, function. In attempt to achieve a morpho-functional recover of the damaged tissue, reparative/regenerative processes start in those tissues endowed with regenerative potential, mainly mediated by activated resident stem cells. These cells reside in a specialized niche that includes different components, cells and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which, reciprocally interacting with stem cells, direct their cell behavior. Evidence suggests that ECM stiffness represents an instructive signal for the activation of stem cells sensing it by various mechanosensors, able to transduce mechanical cues into gene/protein expression responses. The actin cytoskeleton network dynamic acts as key mechanotransducer of ECM signal. The identification of signaling pathways influencing stem cell mechanobiology may offer therapeutic perspectives in the regenerative medicine field. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling, acting as modulator of ECM, ECM-cytoskeleton linking proteins and cytoskeleton dynamics appears a promising candidate. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the contribution of S1P/S1PR signaling in the control of mechanotransduction in stem/progenitor cells. The potential contribution of S1P/S1PR signaling in the mechanobiology of skeletal muscle stem cells will be argued based on the intriguing findings on S1P/S1PR action in this mechanically dynamic tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytoskeleton; extracellular matrix (ECM); mechanotransduction; satellite cells; sphingolipids; sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs); stem cells; skeletal muscle; stiffness; tissue regeneration cytoskeleton; extracellular matrix (ECM); mechanotransduction; satellite cells; sphingolipids; sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs); stem cells; skeletal muscle; stiffness; tissue regeneration
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Sassoli, C.; Pierucci, F.; Zecchi-Orlandini, S.; Meacci, E. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P)/ S1P Receptor Signaling and Mechanotransduction: Implications for Intrinsic Tissue Repair/Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5545.

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