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Comparative Study of Extracellular Proteolytic, Cellulolytic, and Hemicellulolytic Enzyme Activities and Biotransformation of Palm Kernel Cake Biomass by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Foods

1
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
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Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
7
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 4979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20204979
Received: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 30 August 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Enzymes: Structure, Function and Applications)
Biotransformation via solid state fermentation (SSF) mediated by microorganisms is a promising approach to produce useful products from agricultural biomass. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are commonly found in fermented foods have been shown to exhibit extracellular proteolytic, β-glucosidase, β-mannosidase, and β-mannanase activities. Therefore, extracellular proteolytic, cellulolytic, and hemicellulolytic enzyme activities of seven Lactobacillus plantarum strains (a prominent species of LAB) isolated from Malaysian foods were compared in this study. The biotransformation of palm kernel cake (PKC) biomass mediated by selected L. plantarum strains was subsequently conducted. The results obtained in this study exhibited the studied L. plantarum strains produced versatile multi extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities that were active from acidic to alkaline pH conditions. The highest total score of extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities were recorded by L. plantarum RI11, L. plantarum RG11, and L. plantarum RG14. Therefore, they were selected for the subsequent biotransformation of PKC biomass via SSF. The hydrolytic enzyme activities of treated PKC extract were compared for each sampling interval. The scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed the formation of extracellular matrices around L. plantarum strains attached to the surface of PKC biomass during SSF, inferring that the investigated L. plantarum strains have the capability to grow on PKC biomass and perform synergistic secretions of various extracellular proteolytic, cellulolytic, and hemicellulolytic enzymes that were essential for the effective biodegradation of PKC. The substantial growth of selected L. plamtraum strains on PKC during SSF revealed the promising application of selected L. plantarum strains as a biotransformation agent for cellulosic biomass. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; Lactobacillus plantarum; palm kernel cake; biotransformation; solid-state fermentation; extracellular hydrolytic enzymes biomass; Lactobacillus plantarum; palm kernel cake; biotransformation; solid-state fermentation; extracellular hydrolytic enzymes
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Lee, F.H.; Wan, S.Y.; Foo, H.L.; Loh, T.C.; Mohamad, R.; Abdul Rahim, R.; Idrus, Z. Comparative Study of Extracellular Proteolytic, Cellulolytic, and Hemicellulolytic Enzyme Activities and Biotransformation of Palm Kernel Cake Biomass by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Foods. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4979.

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