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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020303

The Interaction between Viral and Environmental Risk Factors in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

1
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, LE12 9RH Nottingham, UK
2
Republican Clinical Neurological Center, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan 420021, Russia
3
Department of Gene and Cell Technology, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan 420021, Russia
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Molecular Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis)
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Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease of unknown ethology targeting the central nervous system (CNS). MS has a polysymptomatic onset and is usually first diagnosed between the ages of 20–40 years. The pathology of the disease is characterized by immune mediated demyelination in the CNS. Although there is no clinical finding unique to MS, characteristic symptoms include sensory symptoms visual and motor impairment. No definitive trigger for the development of MS has been identified but large-scale population studies have described several epidemiological risk factors for the disease. This list is a confusing one including latitude, vitamin D (vitD) levels, genetics, infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and endogenous retrovirus (ERV) reactivation. This review will look at the evidence for each of these and the potential links between these disparate risk factors and the known molecular disease pathogenesis to describe potential hypotheses for the triggering of MS pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL); multiple sclerosis; central nervous system (CNS); Epstein Barr Virus (EBV); HERV cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL); multiple sclerosis; central nervous system (CNS); Epstein Barr Virus (EBV); HERV
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Tarlinton, R.E.; Khaibullin, T.; Granatov, E.; Martynova, E.; Rizvanov, A.; Khaiboullina, S. The Interaction between Viral and Environmental Risk Factors in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 303.

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