Next Article in Journal
Reparative and Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells—Promising Potential for Kidney Transplantation?
Next Article in Special Issue
Virulence Factors of Meningitis-Causing Bacteria: Enabling Brain Entry across the Blood–Brain Barrier
Previous Article in Journal
Application of the SwissDrugDesign Online Resources in Virtual Screening
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Integrated Omics Analysis of the Hfq Regulon in Bordetella pertussis
Article

A Novel Effector Protein of Apple Proliferation Phytoplasma Disrupts Cell Integrity of Nicotiana spp. Protoplasts

1
Applied Genomics and Molecular Biology, Laimburg Research Centre, 39040 Auer/Ora (BZ), Italy
2
Jasmonate Function & Mycorrhiza, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, 06120 Halle, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184613
Received: 7 September 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 14 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Virulence Factors)
Effector proteins play an important role in the virulence of plant pathogens such as phytoplasma, which are the causative agents of hundreds of different plant diseases. The plant hosts comprise economically relevant crops such as apples (Malus × domestica), which can be infected by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ (P. mali), a highly genetically dynamic plant pathogen. As the result of the genetic and functional analyses in this study, a new putative P. mali effector protein was revealed. The so-called “Protein in Malus Expressed 2” (PME2), which is expressed in apples during P. mali infection but not in the insect vector, shows regional genetic differences. In a heterologous expression assay using Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana occidentalis mesophyll protoplasts, translocation of both PME2 variants in the cell nucleus was observed. Overexpression of the effector protein affected cell integrity in Nicotiana spp. protoplasts, indicating a potential role of this protein in pathogenic virulence. Interestingly, the two genetic variants of PME2 differ regarding their potential to manipulate cell integrity. However, the exact function of PME2 during disease manifestation and symptom development remains to be further elucidated. Aside from the first description of the function of a novel effector of P. mali, the results of this study underline the necessity for a more comprehensive description and understanding of the genetic diversity of P. mali as an indispensable basis for a functional understanding of apple proliferation disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoplasma; effector protein; apple; pathogenicity; virulence; apple proliferation phytoplasma; effector protein; apple; pathogenicity; virulence; apple proliferation
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Mittelberger, C.; Stellmach, H.; Hause, B.; Kerschbamer, C.; Schlink, K.; Letschka, T.; Janik, K. A Novel Effector Protein of Apple Proliferation Phytoplasma Disrupts Cell Integrity of Nicotiana spp. Protoplasts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184613

AMA Style

Mittelberger C, Stellmach H, Hause B, Kerschbamer C, Schlink K, Letschka T, Janik K. A Novel Effector Protein of Apple Proliferation Phytoplasma Disrupts Cell Integrity of Nicotiana spp. Protoplasts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(18):4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184613

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mittelberger, Cecilia, Hagen Stellmach, Bettina Hause, Christine Kerschbamer, Katja Schlink, Thomas Letschka, and Katrin Janik. 2019. "A Novel Effector Protein of Apple Proliferation Phytoplasma Disrupts Cell Integrity of Nicotiana spp. Protoplasts" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 18: 4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184613

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop