Next Article in Journal
BTLA Expression on Th1, Th2 and Th17 Effector T-Cells of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Is Associated with Active Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Different Routes to Inhibit Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: Do All Roads Lead to the Same Place?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cigarette Smoke Induces the Risk of Metabolic Bone Diseases: Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling Impairment via Dysfunctional Primary Cilia Affects Migration, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Open AccessReview

The Endocrine Function of Osteocalcin Regulated by Bone Resorption: A Lesson from Reduced and Increased Bone Mass Diseases

1
Bone Physiopathology Group, Multifactorial Disease and Complex Phenotype Research Area, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Disciplines, Sapienza University of Rome, 00186 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184502
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Bone Diseases: Pathophysiology and Molecular Biology)
Bone is a peculiar tissue subjected to a continuous process of self-renewal essential to assure the integrity of the skeleton and to explicate the endocrine functions. The study of bone diseases characterized by increased or reduced bone mass due to osteoclast alterations has been essential to understand the great role played by osteocalcin in the endocrine functions of the skeleton. The ability of osteoclasts to regulate the decarboxylation of osteocalcin and to control glucose metabolism, male fertility, and cognitive functions was demonstrated by the use of animal models. In this review we described how diseases characterized by defective and increased bone resorption activity, as osteopetrosis and osteoporosis, were essential to understand the involvement of bone tissue in whole body physiology. To translate this knowledge into humans, recently published reports on patients were described, but further studies should be performed to confirm this complex hormonal regulation in humans.
Keywords: Osteocalcin; osteoclast; bone diseases Osteocalcin; osteoclast; bone diseases
MDPI and ACS Style

Rossi, M.; Battafarano, G.; Pepe, J.; Minisola, S.; Del Fattore, A. The Endocrine Function of Osteocalcin Regulated by Bone Resorption: A Lesson from Reduced and Increased Bone Mass Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4502.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop