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The Endocrine Function of Osteocalcin Regulated by Bone Resorption: A Lesson from Reduced and Increased Bone Mass Diseases

Bone Physiopathology Group, Multifactorial Disease and Complex Phenotype Research Area, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Disciplines, Sapienza University of Rome, 00186 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4502;
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Bone Diseases: Pathophysiology and Molecular Biology)
Bone is a peculiar tissue subjected to a continuous process of self-renewal essential to assure the integrity of the skeleton and to explicate the endocrine functions. The study of bone diseases characterized by increased or reduced bone mass due to osteoclast alterations has been essential to understand the great role played by osteocalcin in the endocrine functions of the skeleton. The ability of osteoclasts to regulate the decarboxylation of osteocalcin and to control glucose metabolism, male fertility, and cognitive functions was demonstrated by the use of animal models. In this review we described how diseases characterized by defective and increased bone resorption activity, as osteopetrosis and osteoporosis, were essential to understand the involvement of bone tissue in whole body physiology. To translate this knowledge into humans, recently published reports on patients were described, but further studies should be performed to confirm this complex hormonal regulation in humans.
Keywords: Osteocalcin; osteoclast; bone diseases Osteocalcin; osteoclast; bone diseases
MDPI and ACS Style

Rossi, M.; Battafarano, G.; Pepe, J.; Minisola, S.; Del Fattore, A. The Endocrine Function of Osteocalcin Regulated by Bone Resorption: A Lesson from Reduced and Increased Bone Mass Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4502.

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