Neurodegeneration and Neuro-Regeneration—Alzheimer’s Disease and Stem Cell Therapy
Institute for Microscopic Anatomy and Neurobiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, 55131 Mainz, Germany
Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden School of Medicine, 01069 Dresden, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Verica Vasic and Kathrin Barth are both co-first author.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174272
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Annual Reviews in Molecular Sciences 2019)
Aging causes many changes in the human body, and is a high risk for various diseases. Dementia, a common age-related disease, is a clinical disorder triggered by neurodegeneration. Brain damage caused by neuronal death leads to cognitive decline, memory loss, learning inabilities and mood changes. Numerous disease conditions may cause dementia; however, the most common one is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a futile and yet untreatable illness. Adult neurogenesis carries the potential of brain self-repair by an endogenous formation of newly-born neurons in the adult brain; however it also declines with age. Strategies to improve the symptoms of aging and age-related diseases have included different means to stimulate neurogenesis, both pharmacologically and naturally. Finally, the regulatory mechanisms of stem cells neurogenesis or a functional integration of newborn neurons have been explored to provide the basis for grafted stem cell therapy. This review aims to provide an overview of AD pathology of different neural and glial cell types and summarizes current strategies of experimental stem cell treatments and their putative future use in clinical settings.