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Anti-Diabetic Countermeasures Against Tobacco Smoke-Dependent Cerebrovascular Toxicity: Use and Effect of Rosiglitazone

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
2
Center for Blood-Brain Barrier Research, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174225
Received: 13 July 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 29 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Tobacco smoking (TS) is one of the most addictive habit sand a main public health hazards, impacting the vascular endothelium through oxidative stress (OS) stimuli, exposure to nicotine, and smoking-induced inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Increasing evidence also suggested that TS increases glucose intolerance and the risk factor of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM), which, along with TS, is connected to blood–brain barrier (BBB) injuries, and heightens the risk of cerebrovascular disorders. Although the exact mechanism of rosiglitazone (RSG) is unknown, our previous in vitro work showed how RSG, an oral anti-diabetic drug belonging to the family of thiazolidinedione class, can protect BBB integrity through enhancement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) activity. Herein, we have validated the protective role of rosiglitazone against TS-induced BBB impairment in vivo. Our results revealed that RSG as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), activates counteractive mechanisms primarily associated with the upregulation of Nrf2 and PPARγ pathways which reduce TS-dependent toxicity at the cerebrovascular level. In line with these findings, our results show that RSG reduces inflammation and protects BBB integrity. In conclusion, RSG offers a novel and promising therapeutic application to reduce TS-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction through activation of the PPARγ-dependent and/or PPARγ-independent Nrf2 pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: rosiglitazone; repurposing; oxidative stress; blood-brain barrier; tight junctions; Nrf2; PPARγ; brain; disease; cerebrovascular rosiglitazone; repurposing; oxidative stress; blood-brain barrier; tight junctions; Nrf2; PPARγ; brain; disease; cerebrovascular
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Sivandzade, F.; Cucullo, L. Anti-Diabetic Countermeasures Against Tobacco Smoke-Dependent Cerebrovascular Toxicity: Use and Effect of Rosiglitazone. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4225.

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