Next Article in Journal
Synthetic Blocks for Bone Regeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimisation and Benchmarking of Targeted Amplicon Sequencing for Mycobiome Analysis of Respiratory Specimens
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular and Clinical Opposite Findings in 11p15.5 Associated Imprinting Disorders: Characterization of Basic Mechanisms to Improve Clinical Management
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Pneumonitis: Cell Tropism, Inflammation, and Immunity
Open AccessReview

Animal Models of Pneumococcal pneumonia

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
South Texas Veterans Health Care System; San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4220;
Received: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 28 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Infections: From Molecular Biology to Therapy)
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children and the elderly. Another important aspect related to pneumococcal infections is the persistent rate of penicillin and macrolide resistance. Therefore, animal models have been developed to better understand the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease and test new therapeutic agents and vaccines. This narrative review will focus on the characteristics of the different animal pneumococcal pneumonia models. The assessment of the different animal models will include considerations regarding pneumococcal strains, microbiology properties, procedures used for bacterial inoculation, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: pneumonia; S. pneumoniae; animal model; antibiotic resistance; vaccine pneumonia; S. pneumoniae; animal model; antibiotic resistance; vaccine
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Borsa, N.; Di Pasquale, M.; Restrepo, M.I. Animal Models of Pneumococcal pneumonia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4220.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop