Next Article in Journal
Kainate Receptor-Mediated Depression of Glutamate Release Involves Protein Kinase A in the Cerebellum
Next Article in Special Issue
The Overcrowded Crossroads: Mitochondria, Alpha-Synuclein, and the Endo-Lysosomal System Interaction in Parkinson’s Disease
Previous Article in Journal
The Complex Phosphorylation Patterns That Regulate the Activity of Hsp70 and Its Cochaperones
Previous Article in Special Issue
(E)-2-methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-1-en-1-yl) Phenol Ameliorates MPTP-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration by Inhibiting the STAT3 Pathway
Open AccessReview

Probiotics for Parkinson’s Disease

Biomedicine Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Frederik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174121
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurobiology Research in Parkinson's Disease)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurological disorder classically characterized by impairments in motor system function associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. After almost 200 years since the first description of PD by James Parkinson, unraveling the complexity of PD continues to evolve. It is now recognized that an interplay between genetic and environmental factors influences a diverse range of cellular processes, reflecting on other clinical features including non-motor symptoms. This has consequently highlighted the extensive value of early clinical diagnosis to reduce difficulties of later stage management of PD. Advancement in understanding of PD has made remarkable progress in introducing new tools and strategies such as stem cell therapy and deep brain stimulation. A link between alterations in gut microbiota and PD has also opened a new line. Evidence exists of a bidirectional pathway between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are being examined that might influence gut-brain axis by altering gut microbiota composition, enteric nervous system, and CNS. This review provides status on use of probiotics for PD. Limitations and future directions will also be addressed to promote further research considering use of probiotics for PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; probiotics; prebiotics; synbiotics; gastrointestinal; gut; microbiota; dysbiosis Parkinson’s disease; probiotics; prebiotics; synbiotics; gastrointestinal; gut; microbiota; dysbiosis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gazerani, P. Probiotics for Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4121.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop