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Article

Extensive Chromosomal Reorganization in Apistogramma Fishes (Cichlidae, Cichlinae) Fits the Complex Evolutionary Diversification of the Genus

1
Departamento de Biologia Celular e Genética, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59078-970, RN, Brazil
2
Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Rodovia Washington Luiz, Km. 235, C.P. 676, São Carlos 13565-905, SP, Brazil
3
Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Schiller University, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany
4
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Laboratório de Genética Animal, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Manaus 69077-000, AM, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174077
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosome and Karyotype Variation)
Neotropical cichlid fishes are one of the most diversified and evolutionarily successful species assemblages. Extremely similar forms and intraspecific polychromatism present challenges for the taxonomy of some of these groups. Several species complexes have a largely unknown origin and unresolved evolutionary processes. Dwarf cichlids of the genus Apistogramma, comprising more than a hundred species, exhibit intricate taxonomic and biogeographic patterns, with both allopatric and sympatric distributions. However, karyotype evolution and the role of chromosomal changes in Apistogramma are still unknown. In the present study, nine South American Apistogramma species were analyzed using conventional cytogenetic methods and the mapping of repetitive DNA sequences [18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and (TTAGGG)n] by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our results showed that Apistogramma has unique cytogenetic characteristics in relation to closely related groups, such as a reduced 2n and a large number of bi-armed chromosomes. Interspecific patterns revealed a scenario of remarkable karyotypic changes, including a reduction of 2n, the occurrence of B-chromosomes and evolutionary dynamic of rDNA tandem repeats. In addition to the well-known pre-zygotic reproductive isolation, the karyotype reorganization in the genus suggests that chromosomal changes could act as postzygotic barriers in areas where Apistogramma congeners overlap. View Full-Text
Keywords: Neotropical cichlids; dwarf species; repetitive DNAs; karyotype evolution; species flock; postzygotic isolation Neotropical cichlids; dwarf species; repetitive DNAs; karyotype evolution; species flock; postzygotic isolation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wagner Werneck Félix da Costa, G.; de Bello Cioffi, M.; Liehr, T.; Feldberg, E.; Antonio Carlos Bertollo, L.; Franco Molina, W. Extensive Chromosomal Reorganization in Apistogramma Fishes (Cichlidae, Cichlinae) Fits the Complex Evolutionary Diversification of the Genus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174077

AMA Style

Wagner Werneck Félix da Costa G, de Bello Cioffi M, Liehr T, Feldberg E, Antonio Carlos Bertollo L, Franco Molina W. Extensive Chromosomal Reorganization in Apistogramma Fishes (Cichlidae, Cichlinae) Fits the Complex Evolutionary Diversification of the Genus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(17):4077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174077

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wagner Werneck Félix da Costa, Gideão, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Thomas Liehr, Eliana Feldberg, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, and Wagner Franco Molina. 2019. "Extensive Chromosomal Reorganization in Apistogramma Fishes (Cichlidae, Cichlinae) Fits the Complex Evolutionary Diversification of the Genus" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 17: 4077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174077

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