Next Article in Journal
Retrotransposons in Plant Genomes: Structure, Identification, and Classification through Bioinformatics and Machine Learning
Next Article in Special Issue
Clumps of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/Extracellular Matrix Complexes Generated with Xeno-Free Conditions Facilitate Bone Regeneration via Direct and Indirect Osteogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Sequence and Evolutionary Features for the Alternatively Spliced Exons of Eukaryotic Genes
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Response of Growth Plate to Biodegradable Mg-Ca-Zn Alloys Depending on the Surface Modification
Open AccessArticle

Biological Response to Macroporous Chitosan-Agarose Bone Scaffolds Comprising Mg- and Zn-Doped Nano-Hydroxyapatite

1
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1 Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Biomaterials, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1 Street, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153835
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 August 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
Modification of implantable scaffolds with magnesium and zinc for improvement of bone regeneration is a growing trend in the engineering of biomaterials. The aim of this study was to synthesize nano-hydroxyapatite substituted with magnesium (Mg2+) (HA-Mg) and zinc (Zn2+) (HA-Zn) ions in order to fabricate chitosan-agarose-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds (chit/aga/HA) with improved biocompatibility. Fabricated biomaterials containing Mg2+ or Zn2+ were tested using osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells to determine the effect of incorporated metal ions on cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. The study was conducted in direct contact with the scaffolds (cells were seeded onto the biomaterials) and using fluid extracts of the materials. It demonstrated that incorporation of Mg2+ ions into chit/aga/HA structure increased spreading of the osteoblasts, promoted cell proliferation on the scaffold surface, and enhanced osteocalcin production by mesenchymal stem cells. Although biomaterial containing Zn2+ did not improve cell proliferation, it did enhance type I collagen production by mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix mineralization as compared to cells cultured in a polystyrene well. Nevertheless, scaffolds made of pure HA gave better results than material with Zn2+. Results of the experiments clearly showed that modification of the chit/aga/HA scaffold with Zn2+ did not have any positive impact on cell behavior, whereas, incorporation of Mg2+ ions into its structure may significantly improve biocompatibility of the resultant material, increasing its potential in biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; osteoblasts; osteogenic differentiation; cell spreading; proliferation; tissue engineering mesenchymal stem cells; osteoblasts; osteogenic differentiation; cell spreading; proliferation; tissue engineering
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kazimierczak, P.; Kolmas, J.; Przekora, A. Biological Response to Macroporous Chitosan-Agarose Bone Scaffolds Comprising Mg- and Zn-Doped Nano-Hydroxyapatite. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3835.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop