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Alterations in Galanin-Like Immunoreactivity in the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Stomach Following Acrylamide Supplementation

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133345
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides for Health Benefits 2019)
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Abstract

In recent years, a significant increase in the consumption of products containing large amounts of acrylamide (e.g., chips, fries, coffee), especially among young people has been noted. The present study was created to establish the impact of acrylamide supplementation, in tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose and a dose ten times higher than TDI, on the population of galanin-like immunoreactive (GAL-LI) stomach neurons in pigs. Additionally, in the present study, the possible functional co-operation of GAL with other neuroactive substances and their role in acrylamide intoxication was investigated. Using double-labelling immunohistochemistry, alterations in the expression of GAL were examined in the porcine stomach enteric neurons after low and high doses of acrylamide supplementation. Generally, upregulation in GAL-LI immunoreactivity in both myenteric and submucous plexuses was noted in all stomach fragments studied. Additionally, the proportion of GAL-expressing cell bodies simultaneously immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript peptide (CART) also increased. The results suggest neurotrophic or/and neuroprotective properties of GAL and possible co-operation of GAL with VIP, nNOS, CART in the recovery processes in the stomach enteric nervous system (ENS) neurons following acrylamide intoxication. View Full-Text
Keywords: acrylamide; enteric nervous system; galanin; pig; stomach acrylamide; enteric nervous system; galanin; pig; stomach
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Palus, K.; Makowska, K.; Całka, J. Alterations in Galanin-Like Immunoreactivity in the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Stomach Following Acrylamide Supplementation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3345.

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