Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has become one of the most promising treatment against autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as in the treatment of different types of cancer, since it is a non-invasive method and easy to carry out. The three main ingredients of PDT are light irradiation, oxygen, and a photosensitizer (PS). Light irradiation depends on the type of molecule or compound to be used as a PS. The concentration of O2
fluctuates according to the medium where the target tissue is located and over time, although it is known that it is possible to provide oxygenated species to the treated area through the PS itself. Finally, each PS has its own characteristics, the efficacy of which depends on multiple factors, such as solubility, administration technique, retention time, stability, excitation wavelength, biocompatibility, and clearance, among others. Therefore, it is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the disease to select the best PS for a specific target, such as RA. In this review we will present the PSs used in the last three decades to treat RA under PDT protocol, as well as insights on the relevant strategies.
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