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Translatomics: The Global View of Translation

1
Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Institute of Life and Health Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010212
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Control)
In all kingdoms of life, proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in a process referred to as translation. The amplitude of translational regulation exceeds the sum of transcription, mRNA degradation and protein degradation. Therefore, it is essential to investigate translation in a global scale. Like the other “omics”-methods, translatomics investigates the totality of the components in the translation process, including but not limited to translating mRNAs, ribosomes, tRNAs, regulatory RNAs and nascent polypeptide chains. Technical advances in recent years have brought breakthroughs in the investigation of these components at global scale, both for their composition and dynamics. These methods have been applied in a rapidly increasing number of studies to reveal multifaceted aspects of translation control. The process of translation is not restricted to the conversion of mRNA coding sequences into polypeptide chains, it also controls the composition of the proteome in a delicate and responsive way. Therefore, translatomics has extended its unique and innovative power to many fields including proteomics, cancer research, bacterial stress response, biological rhythmicity and plant biology. Rational design in translation can enhance recombinant protein production for thousands of times. This brief review summarizes the main state-of-the-art methods of translatomics, highlights recent discoveries made in this field and introduces applications of translatomics on basic biological and biomedical research. View Full-Text
Keywords: translatomics; RNC-mRNA; translation regulation; RNC-seq; Ribo-seq; polysome profiling translatomics; RNC-mRNA; translation regulation; RNC-seq; Ribo-seq; polysome profiling
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Zhao, J.; Qin, B.; Nikolay, R.; Spahn, C.M.T.; Zhang, G. Translatomics: The Global View of Translation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 212.

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