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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092672

lncRNAs in Non-Malignant Tissue Have Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer

1
Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Alej Svobody 76, 32300 Pilsen, Czech Republic
2
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 32300 Pilsen, Czech Republic
3
Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic
4
Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics, First Faculty of Medicine, Albertov 4, Charles University, 12800 Prague, Czech Republic
5
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Karlovarska 48, 30166 Pilsen, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic and Translational Research in Colorectal Cancer)
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Abstract

Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer related death in Europe, clinically relevant biomarkers for therapy guidance and prognosis are insufficiently reliable. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs over 200 nucleotides long that are not translated into proteins but can influence biological processes. There is emerging evidence for their involvement in solid cancer as oncogenes, tumour suppressors or regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis development. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of selected lncRNAs in a retrospective study on CRC patients from the Czech Republic. We used a quantitative PCR approach to measure the expression in paired non-malignant and tumour tissue samples of CRC patients of nine lncRNAs previously shown to be involved in cancer progression—ANRIL, CCAT1, GAS5, linc-ROR, MALAT1, MIR155HG, PCAT1, SPRY4-IT1 and TUG1. Associations between expression and expression ratios and clinical characteristics and survival were assessed by using univariable Cox proportional hazards models, Kaplan-Meier estimations with the Gehan-Wilcoxon test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s correlations. A comparison of expression in tumour tissue (TT) and non-malignant mucosa tissue (MT) showed significant upregulation of CCAT1 and linc-ROR in TT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and downregulation of ANRIL, MIR155HG and MALAT1 (p = 0.001, p = 0.010, p = 0.001, respectively). Linc-ROR was significantly associated with the presence of synchronous metastases (p = 0.033). For individual tissue types, lower MIR155HG expression in TT was correlated with both shorter overall survival (p = 0.008) and shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.040). In MT, expression ratios of CCAT1/ANRIL and CCAT1/MIR155HG were associated with overall survival (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006, respectively). Our results revealed that changes in expression of lncRNAs between MT and TT hold potential to be used as prognostic biomarkers in CRC patients. Moreover, the ratios of CCAT1 to ANRIL and MIR155HG in MT also exhibit potential for prognosis assessment without tumour sampling. Our results also indicate that cancer progression is associated with detrimental system-wide changes in patient tissue, which might govern patient survival even after successful elimination of tumour or cancerous cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal carcinoma; lncRNA; lncRNA ratio; MIR155HG; CCAT1; PCAT1 colorectal carcinoma; lncRNA; lncRNA ratio; MIR155HG; CCAT1; PCAT1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Thiele, J.-A.; Hosek, P.; Kralovcova, E.; Ostasov, P.; Liska, V.; Bruha, J.; Vycital, O.; Rosendorf, J.; Opattova, A.; Horak, J.; Kralickova, M.; Vodicka, P.; Pitule, P. lncRNAs in Non-Malignant Tissue Have Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2672.

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