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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092638

Bradykinin B2 Receptor Contributes to Inflammatory Responses in Human Endothelial Cells by the Transactivation of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor FGFR-1

1
Dept. Life Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract

Elevated levels of bradykinin (BK) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and angiogenic disorders. In angiogenesis, both stimuli induce a pro-inflammatory signature in endothelial cells, activating an autocrine/paracrine amplification loop that sustains the neovascularization process. Here we investigated the contribution of the FGF-2 pathway in the BK-mediated human endothelial cell permeability and migration, and the role of the B2 receptor (B2R) of BK in this cross-talk. BK (1 µM) upregulated the FGF-2 expression and promoted the FGF-2 signaling, both in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in retinal capillary endothelial cells (HREC) by the activation of Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) and its downstream signaling (fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate: FRSα, extracellular signal–regulated kinases1/2: ERK1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3: STAT3 phosphorylation). FGFR-1 phosphorylation triggered by BK was c-Src mediated and independent from FGF-2 upregulation. Either HUVEC and HREC exposed to BK showed increased permeability, disassembly of adherens and tight-junction, and increased cell migration. B2R blockade by the selective antagonist, fasitibant, significantly inhibited FGF-2/FGFR-1 signaling, and in turn, BK-mediated endothelial cell permeability and migration. Similarly, the FGFR-1 inhibitor, SU5402, and the knock-down of the receptor prevented the BK/B2R inflammatory response in endothelial cells. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the existence of a BK/B2R/FGFR-1/FGF-2 axis in endothelial cells that might be implicated in propagation of angiogenic/inflammatory responses. A B2R blockade, by abolishing the initial BK stimulus, strongly attenuated FGFR-1-driven cell permeability and migration. View Full-Text
Keywords: bradykinin; B2R antagonist; endothelial cells; FGFR-1 bradykinin; B2R antagonist; endothelial cells; FGFR-1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Terzuoli, E.; Corti, F.; Nannelli, G.; Giachetti, A.; Donnini, S.; Ziche, M. Bradykinin B2 Receptor Contributes to Inflammatory Responses in Human Endothelial Cells by the Transactivation of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor FGFR-1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2638.

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