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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092558

Comparative Metabolic Phenotyping of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) for the Identification of Metabolic Signatures in Cultivars Differing in Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum

Centre for Plant Metabolomics Research, Department of Biochemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
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Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolism in Crops: A Systems Biology Perspective)
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Abstract

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important dietary source which contains numerous bioactive phytochemicals. Active breeding programs constantly produce new cultivars possessing superior and desirable traits. However, the underlying molecular signatures that functionally describe these traits are yet to be elucidated. Thus, in this study we used an untargeted metabolomic approach to describe differential metabolic profiles of four cultivars described as having high to intermediate resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. Metabolites were methanol-extracted from leaves, stems and root tissues and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high definition mass spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis revealed cultivar-related differential metabolic phenotypes. A total of 41 metabolites were statistically selected and annotated, consisting of amino acids, organic acids, lipids, derivatives of cinnamic acid and benzoic acids, flavonoids and steroidal glycoalkaloids which were especially prominent in the two highly resistant cultivars. Interestingly, the less resistant cultivars had various fatty acid derivatives in root extracts that contributed to the differentiated metabolic signatures. Moreover, the metabolic phenotype of the STAR9008 (8SC) cultivar with intermediate resistance, was characterized by derivatives of cinnamic acids and flavonoids but at lower levels compared to the resistant cultivars. The 8SC cultivar also exhibited a lack of hydroxybenzoic acid biomarkers, which may be attributed to its lower resistance. These metabolic phenotypes provide insights into the differential metabolic signatures underlying the metabolism of these four cultivars, defining their respective phenotypic traits such as their resistance, tolerance or susceptibility to Ralstonia solanacearum. View Full-Text
Keywords: LC-MS; metabolomics; multivariate data analysis; Solanum lycopersicum; secondary metabolites LC-MS; metabolomics; multivariate data analysis; Solanum lycopersicum; secondary metabolites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zeiss, D.R.; Mhlongo, M.I.; Tugizimana, F.; Steenkamp, P.A.; Dubery, I.A. Comparative Metabolic Phenotyping of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) for the Identification of Metabolic Signatures in Cultivars Differing in Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2558.

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