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Liver X Receptors: A Possible Link between Lipid Disorders and Female Infertility

1
Université Clermont Auvergne, GReD, CNRS UMR 6293, INSERM U1103, 28, Place Henri Dunant, BP38, F63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France
2
Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, 58 Boulevard Montalembert, F-63009 Clermont-Ferrand, France
3
Service d’Endocrinologie, Diabétologie et Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Clermont Ferrand, Hôpital Gabriel Montpied, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand, France
4
Université Clermont Auvergne, ImoST, INSERM U1240, 58, rue Montalembert, BP184, F63005 Clermont-Ferrand, France
5
CHU Clermont Ferrand, Assistance Médicale à la Procréation-CECOS, Hôpital Estaing, Place Lucie et Raymond Aubrac, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand CEDEX 1, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082177
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Nuclear Receptors)
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Abstract

A close relationship exists between cholesterol and female reproductive physiology. Indeed, cholesterol is crucial for steroid synthesis by ovary and placenta, and primordial for cell structure during folliculogenesis. Furthermore, oxysterols, cholesterol-derived ligands, play a potential role in oocyte maturation. Anomalies of cholesterol metabolism are frequently linked to infertility. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms. In parallel, increasing evidence describing the biological roles of liver X receptors (LXRs) in the regulation of steroid synthesis and inflammation, two processes necessary for follicle maturation and ovulation. Both of the isoforms of LXRs and their bona fide ligands are present in the ovary. LXR-deficient mice develop late sterility due to abnormal oocyte maturation and increased oocyte atresia. These mice also have an ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome in response to gonadotropin stimulation. Hence, further studies are necessary to explore their specific roles in oocyte, granulosa, and theca cells. LXRs also modulate estrogen signaling and this could explain the putative protective role of the LXRs in breast cancer growth. Altogether, clinical studies would be important for determining the physiological relevance of LXRs in reproductive disorders in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver X receptors; cholesterol; female reproduction; breast cancer; ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome liver X receptors; cholesterol; female reproduction; breast cancer; ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dallel, S.; Tauveron, I.; Brugnon, F.; Baron, S.; Lobaccaro, J.M.A.; Maqdasy, S. Liver X Receptors: A Possible Link between Lipid Disorders and Female Infertility. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2177.

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