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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061746

The “Magnesium Sacrifice” Strategy Enables PMMA Bone Cement Partial Biodegradability and Osseointegration Potential

1
College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117583 Singapore, Singapore
3
China Orthopaedic Regenerative Medicine Group (CORMed), Hangzhou 310000, China
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Abstract

Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cements are the most commonly used injectable orthopedic materials due to their excellent injectability and mechanical properties. However, their poor biocompatibility and excessive stiffness may cause complications such as aseptic implant loosening and stress shielding. In this study, we aimed to develop a new type of partially biodegradable composite bone cement by incorporating magnesium (Mg) microspheres, known as “Mg sacrifices” (MgSs), in the PMMA matrix. Being sensitive to the physiological environment, the MgSs in PMMA could gradually degrade to produce bioactive Mg ions and, meanwhile, result in an interconnected macroporous structure within the cement matrix. The mechanical properties, solidification, and biocompatibility, both in vitro and in vivo, of PMMA–Mg bone cement were characterized. Interestingly, the incorporation of Mg microspheres did not markedly affect the mechanical strength of bone cement. However, the maximum temperature upon setting of bone cement decreased. This partially biodegradable composite bone cement showed good biocompatibility in vitro. In the in vivo study, considerable bony ingrowth occurred in the pores upon MgS degradation. Together, the findings from this study indicate that such partially biodegradable PMMA–Mg composite may be ideal bone cement for minimally invasive orthopedic surgeries such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone cement; PMMA; magnesium; partial degradation; osseointegration bone cement; PMMA; magnesium; partial degradation; osseointegration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhai, Q.; Han, F.; He, Z.; Shi, C.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, C.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, X.; Yang, H.; Li, B. The “Magnesium Sacrifice” Strategy Enables PMMA Bone Cement Partial Biodegradability and Osseointegration Potential. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1746.

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