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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1508;

GDF11 Modulates Ca2+-Dependent Smad2/3 Signaling to Prevent Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

Programa de Fisiología y Biofísica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8389100, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Binding Proteins)
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Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, has been shown to act as a negative regulator in cardiac hypertrophy. Ca2+ signaling modulates cardiomyocyte growth; however, the role of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms in mediating the effects of GDF11 remains elusive. Here, we found that GDF11 induced intracellular Ca2+ increases in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and that this response was blocked by chelating the intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA-AM or by pretreatment with inhibitors of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) pathway. Moreover, GDF11 increased the phosphorylation levels and luciferase activity of Smad2/3 in a concentration-dependent manner, and the inhibition of IP3-dependent Ca2+ release abolished GDF11-induced Smad2/3 activity. To assess whether GDF11 exerted antihypertrophic effects by modulating Ca2+ signaling, cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypertrophic agents (100 nM testosterone or 50 μM phenylephrine) for 24 h. Both treatments increased cardiomyocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation, and these responses were significantly blunted by pretreatment with GDF11 over 24 h. Moreover, downregulation of Smad2 and Smad3 with siRNA was accompanied by inhibition of the antihypertrophic effects of GDF11. These results suggest that GDF11 modulates Ca2+ signaling and the Smad2/3 pathway to prevent cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth differentiation factor 11; Ca2+ signaling; cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; Smad2/3 proteins growth differentiation factor 11; Ca2+ signaling; cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; Smad2/3 proteins

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Duran, J.; Troncoso, M.F.; Lagos, D.; Ramos, S.; Marin, G.; Estrada, M. GDF11 Modulates Ca2+-Dependent Smad2/3 Signaling to Prevent Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1508.

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