, which has been prevalently cultivated in landscaping, is a dicotyledonous herbaceous flower of high ornamental value. Annually, there is a massive worldwide market demand for petunia seeds. The normal development of anther is the necessary prerequisite for the plants to generate seeds. However, the knowledge of petunia anther development processes is still limited. To better understand the mechanisms of petunia anther development, the transcriptomes and metabolomes of petunia anthers at three typical development stages were constructed and then used to detect the gene expression patterns and primary metabolite profiles during the anther development processes. Results suggested that there were many differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) that mainly participated in photosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism when DEGs were compared between the different development stages of anthers. In this study, fructose and glucose, which were involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, were taken as the most important metabolites by partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). Additionally, the qRT-PCR analysis of the photosynthetic-related genes all showed decreased expression trends along with the anther development. These pieces of evidence indicated that the activities of energy and carbohydrate metabolic pathways were gradually reduced during all the development stages of anther, which affects the sink strength. Overall, this work provides a novel and comprehensive understanding of the metabolic processes in petunia anthers.
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