PPAR Agonists and Metabolic Syndrome: An Established Role?
AbstractTherapeutic approaches to metabolic syndrome (MetS) are numerous and may target lipoproteins, blood pressure or anthropometric indices. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the metabolic regulation of lipid and lipoprotein levels, i.e., triglycerides (TGs), blood glucose, and abdominal adiposity. PPARs may be classified into the α, β/δ and γ subtypes. The PPAR-α agonists, mainly fibrates (including newer molecules such as pemafibrate) and omega-3 fatty acids, are powerful TG-lowering agents. They mainly affect TG catabolism and, particularly with fibrates, raise the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). PPAR-γ agonists, mainly glitazones, show a smaller activity on TGs but are powerful glucose-lowering agents. Newer PPAR-α/δ agonists, e.g., elafibranor, have been designed to achieve single drugs with TG-lowering and HDL-C-raising effects, in addition to the insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycemic effects of glitazones. They also hold promise for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is closely associated with the MetS. The PPAR system thus offers an important hope in the management of atherogenic dyslipidemias, although concerns regarding potential adverse events such as the rise of plasma creatinine, gallstone formation, drug–drug interactions (i.e., gemfibrozil) and myopathy should also be acknowledged. View Full-Text
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.
Share & Cite This Article
Botta, M.; Audano, M.; Sahebkar, A.; Sirtori, C.R.; Mitro, N.; Ruscica, M. PPAR Agonists and Metabolic Syndrome: An Established Role? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1197.
Botta M, Audano M, Sahebkar A, Sirtori CR, Mitro N, Ruscica M. PPAR Agonists and Metabolic Syndrome: An Established Role? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1197.Chicago/Turabian Style
Botta, Margherita; Audano, Matteo; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Mitro, Nico; Ruscica, Massimiliano. 2018. "PPAR Agonists and Metabolic Syndrome: An Established Role?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 4: 1197.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.