Next Article in Journal
The Crystal Structure of the R280K Mutant of Human p53 Explains the Loss of DNA Binding
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of miRNAs in Virus-Mediated Oncogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Expressing OsMPK4 Impairs Plant Growth but Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis
Previous Article in Special Issue
MicroRNA Expression Analysis of In Vitro Dedifferentiated Human Pancreatic Islet Cells Reveals the Activation of the Pluripotency-Related MicroRNA Cluster miR-302s

The Double Face of Exosome-Carried MicroRNAs in Cancer Immunomodulation

by 1,2,*,†, 2,3,4,†, 5,‡ and 2,4,‡
Institute of General Pathology, Università Cattolica and Policlinico Gemelli, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, “La Sapienza” University, 00161 Rome, Italy
Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy
RPPA Unit, Proteomics Area, Core Facilties, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00162 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1183;
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of MicroRNAs in Human Diseases)
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells. The advantage of immunotherapeutic treatment alone over combining immuno- and conventional therapy is currently debated. Understanding the role of tumor exosome-cargo is of crucial importance for our full comprehension of neoplastic immonosuppression and for the construction of novel therapies and vaccines based on (nano-) vesicles. Furthermore, to devise new anti-cancer approaches, diverse groups investigated the possibility of engineering TEXs by conditioning cancer cells’ own cargo. In this review, we summarize the state of art of TEX-based immunomodulation with a particular focus on the molecular function of non-coding family genes, microRNAs. Finally, we will report on recent efforts in the study of potential applications of engineered exosomes in cancer immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs); microRNAs; immune system; cancer tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs); microRNAs; immune system; cancer
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alfonsi, R.; Grassi, L.; Signore, M.; Bonci, D. The Double Face of Exosome-Carried MicroRNAs in Cancer Immunomodulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1183.

AMA Style

Alfonsi R, Grassi L, Signore M, Bonci D. The Double Face of Exosome-Carried MicroRNAs in Cancer Immunomodulation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1183.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfonsi, Romina, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, and Désirée Bonci. 2018. "The Double Face of Exosome-Carried MicroRNAs in Cancer Immunomodulation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 4: 1183.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop