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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041165

Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.)

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Plant Production Education, Beijing Collaborative Innovation Center for Eco-Environmental Improvement with Forestry Fruit Trees, Plant Science and Technology College, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102202, China
2
Beijing Bei Nong Enterprise Management Co., Ltd., Beijing 102206, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

The present study aimed to compare polyphenols among red lettuce cultivars and identify suitable cultivars for the development and utilization of healthy vegetables. Polyphenols, mineral elements, and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the leaves of six red pigmented lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars; thereafter, we assessed the anti-tumor effects of cultivar B-2, which displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Quadrupole–Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis revealed four classes of polyphenols in these cultivars. The composition and contents of these metabolites varied significantly among cultivars and primarily depended on leaf color. The B-2 cultivar had the highest antioxidant potential than others because it contained the highest levels of polyphenols, especially anthocyanin, flavone, and phenolic acid; furthermore, this cultivar displayed anti-tumor effects against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human hepatoma cell line Bel7402, human cancer colorectal adenoma cell line HCT-8, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Hence, the new red-leaf lettuce cultivar B-2 has a distinct metabolite profile, with high potential for development and utilization of natural phytochemical and mineral resources in lettuces and can be used as a nutrient-dense food product. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; red pigmented lettuce; antioxidant activity; anti-tumor effects polyphenols; red pigmented lettuce; antioxidant activity; anti-tumor effects
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Qin, X.-X.; Zhang, M.-Y.; Han, Y.-Y.; Hao, J.-H.; Liu, C.-J.; Fan, S.-X. Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1165.

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