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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1143;

Bio-Based Cellulose Acetate Films Reinforced with Lignin and Glycerol

Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia MG 38408-902, Brazil
School of Dentistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia MG 38408-902 Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)
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Two sets of four cellulose acetate (degree of substitution = 2.2) were incorporated with lignin extracted from the macaúba endocarp, before and after being chemically modified to sodium carboxymethyl-lignin and aluminum carboxymethyl-lignin, respectively. The eight membranes were prepared by the casting method after dissolution in acetone and embedded with lignins (0.1% w/w), one without modification (CAc-Lig) and two chemically modified (CAc-CMLNa) and (CAc-CMLAl), compared to membranes of pure acetate (CAc). In group II, in the four membranes prepared, glycerol was added (10% w/w) as a plasticizer. The membranes were characterized by a number of techniques: thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), morphological (scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)), structural (X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)), hydrophobic (contact angle and water vapor permeability), and thermomechanical (dynamic thermal mechanical analysis and tensile tests). The results show that despite some incompatibility with the cellulose acetate, the incorporation of the lignin in a concentration of 0.1% w/w acts as a reinforcement in the membrane, greatly increasing the tension rupture of the material. The presence of glycerol in a concentration of 10% w/w also acts as a reinforcement in all membranes, in addition to increasing the tension rupture. In this study, glycerol and acetate both increased the compatibility of the membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: membranes; cellulose acetate; lignins; glycerol; macaúba endocarp membranes; cellulose acetate; lignins; glycerol; macaúba endocarp

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gontijo de Melo, P.; Fornazier Borges, M.; Afonso Ferreira, J.; Vicente Barbosa Silva, M.; Ruggiero, R. Bio-Based Cellulose Acetate Films Reinforced with Lignin and Glycerol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1143.

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