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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041121

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Emerging Roles in Bone Metastasis

1
Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
2
Edinburgh Cancer Research UK Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Metastasis: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Bone metastasis is the most advanced stage of many cancers and indicates a poor prognosis for patients due to resistance to anti-tumor therapies. The establishment of metastasis within the bone is a multistep process. To ensure survival within the bone marrow, tumor cells must initially colonize a niche in which they can enter dormancy. Subsequently, reactivation permits the proliferation and growth of the tumor cells, giving rise to a macro-metastasis displayed clinically as a bone metastatic lesion. Here, we review the evidences that suggest mesenchymal stromal cells play an important role in each of these steps throughout the development of bone metastasis. Similarities between the molecular mechanisms implicated in these processes and those involved in the homeostasis of the bone indicate that the metastatic cells may exploit the homeostatic processes to their own advantage. Identifying the molecular interactions between the mesenchymal stromal cells and tumor cells that promote tumor development may offer insight into potential therapeutic targets that could be utilized to treat bone metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; metastasis; tumor microenvironment; stromal cells; mesenchymal stem cells; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastatic niche; dormancy bone; metastasis; tumor microenvironment; stromal cells; mesenchymal stem cells; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastatic niche; dormancy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Graham, N.; Qian, B.-Z. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Emerging Roles in Bone Metastasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1121.

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