Next Article in Journal
Treatment with Growth Hormone for Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency Syndrome: Benefits and Risks
Previous Article in Journal
Homocysteine Increases Tau Phosphorylation, Truncation and Oligomerization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ) Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 892;

Health Risks of Hypovitaminosis D: A Review of New Molecular Insights

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dental Sciences, and Morpho-functional Imaging, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [930 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


Hypovitaminosis D has become a pandemic, being observed in all ethnicities and age groups worldwide. Environmental factors, such as increased air pollution and reduced ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, as well as lifestyle factors, i.e., decreased outdoor activities and/or poor intake of vitamin D-rich food, are likely involved in the etiology of a dramatic reduction of vitamin D circulating levels. The insufficiency/deficiency of vitamin D has long been known for its association with osteoporosis and rickets. However, in the last few decades it has become a serious public health concern since it has been shown to be independently associated with various chronic pathological conditions such as cancer, coronary heart disease, neurological diseases, type II diabetes, autoimmune diseases, depression, with various inflammatory disorders, and with increased risk for all-cause mortality in the general population. Prevention strategies for these disorders have recently involved supplementation with either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 or their analogs at required daily doses and tolerable upper-limit levels. This review will focus on the emerging evidence about non-classical biological functions of vitamin D in various disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; VDR; cardiovascular diseases (CVD); central nervous system (CNS); allergy; microbioma vitamin D; VDR; cardiovascular diseases (CVD); central nervous system (CNS); allergy; microbioma

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Caccamo, D.; Ricca, S.; Currò, M.; Ientile, R. Health Risks of Hypovitaminosis D: A Review of New Molecular Insights. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 892.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top