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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030735

Regulation of Ion Transport in the Intestine by Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 and 3: Possible Involvement of the Diffuse Chemosensory System

1
Division of Molecular Cell Physiology, Kyoto prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2
Saisei Mirai medical corporation, 6-14-17 Kinda, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-0011, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Transporters and Channels in Physiology and Pathophysiology)
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Abstract

The diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) is well developed in the apparatuses of endodermal origin like gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary function of the GI tract is the extraction of nutrients from the diet. Therefore, the GI tract must possess an efficient surveillance system that continuously monitors the luminal contents for beneficial or harmful compounds. Recent studies have shown that specialized cells in the intestinal lining can sense changes in the luminal content. The chemosensory cells in the GI tract belong to the DCS which consists of enteroendocrine and related cells. These cells initiate various important local and remote reflexes. Although neural and hormonal involvements in ion transport in the GI tract are well documented, involvement of the DCS in the regulation of intestinal ion transport is much less understood. Since activation of luminal chemosensory receptors is a primary signal that elicits changes in intestinal ion transport and motility and failure of the system causes dysfunctions in host homeostasis, as well as functional GI disorders, study of the regulation of GI function by the DCS has become increasingly important. This review discusses the role of the DCS in epithelial ion transport, with particular emphasis on the involvement of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3). View Full-Text
Keywords: diffuse chemosensory system (DCS); short-chain fatty acid (SCFA); free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2); free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3); enteroendocrine cell (EEC); intestine; chloride secretion; bicarbonate secretion diffuse chemosensory system (DCS); short-chain fatty acid (SCFA); free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2); free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3); enteroendocrine cell (EEC); intestine; chloride secretion; bicarbonate secretion
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Kuwahara, A.; Kuwahara, Y.; Inui, T.; Marunaka, Y. Regulation of Ion Transport in the Intestine by Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 and 3: Possible Involvement of the Diffuse Chemosensory System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 735.

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