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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 647;

Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Plants—Progresses and Challenges

Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
Department of Botany, Jangipur College, University of Kalyani, West Bengal 742213, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Membrane Transport)
PDF [2549 KB, uploaded 25 February 2018]


Understanding the mechanisms of sodium (Na+) influx, effective compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants is crucial to manipulate Na+ accumulation and assure the maintenance of low Na+ concentration in the cytosol and, hence, plant tolerance to salt stress. Na+ influx across the plasma membrane in the roots occur mainly via nonselective cation channels (NSCCs). Na+ is compartmentalized into vacuoles by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHXs). Na+ efflux from the plant roots is mediated by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters catalyzed by the salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1) protein. In animals, ouabain (OU)-sensitive Na+, K+-ATPase (a P-type ATPase) mediates sodium efflux. The evolution of P-type ATPases in higher plants does not exclude the possibility of sodium efflux mechanisms similar to the Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent mechanisms characteristic of animal cells. Using novel fluorescence imaging and spectrofluorometric methodologies, an OU-sensitive sodium efflux system has recently been reported to be physiologically active in roots. This review summarizes and analyzes the current knowledge on Na+ influx, compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants in response to salt stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium influx; ouabain-sensitive ATPase; sodium efflux; ouabain; Na+; K+-ATPase sodium influx; ouabain-sensitive ATPase; sodium efflux; ouabain; Na+; K+-ATPase

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Keisham, M.; Mukherjee, S.; Bhatla, S.C. Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Plants—Progresses and Challenges. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 647.

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