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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020434

Photodynamic Inactivation Potentiates the Susceptibility of Antifungal Agents against the Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Candida albicans

Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences 2018)
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Abstract

Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been shown to be a potential treatment modality against Candida infection. However, limited light penetration might leave some cells alive and undergoing regrowth. In this study, we explored the possibility of combining PDI and antifungal agents to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Candida albicans and drug-resistant clinical isolates. We found that planktonic cells that had survived toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated PDI were significantly susceptible to fluconazole within the first 2 h post PDI. Following PDI, the killing efficacy of antifungal agents relates to the PDI dose in wild-type and drug-resistant clinical isolates. However, only a 3-log reduction was found in the biofilm cells, suggesting limited therapeutic efficacy under the combined treatment of PDI and azole antifungal drugs. Using confocal microscopic analysis, we showed that TBO-mediated PDI could partially remove the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilm. Finally, we showed that a combination of PDI with caspofungin could result in the complete killing of biofilms compared to those treated with caspofungin or PDI alone. These results clearly indicate that the combination of PDI and antifungal agents could be a promising treatment against C. albicans infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; antifungal drug; photodynamic inactivation; combination treatment Candida albicans; antifungal drug; photodynamic inactivation; combination treatment
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Huang, M.-C.; Shen, M.; Huang, Y.-J.; Lin, H.-C.; Chen, C.-T. Photodynamic Inactivation Potentiates the Susceptibility of Antifungal Agents against the Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Candida albicans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 434.

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