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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020395

The Molecular Mechanisms of Plant-Derived Compounds Targeting Brain Cancer

1
Department of Pediatrics, Tung’s Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Wuchi, Taichung 435, Taiwan
2
Department of Rehabilitation, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli 356, Taiwan
3
Department of Medical Research, Tung’s Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Wuchi, Taichung 435, Taiwan
4
Department of Surgery, Tung’s Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Wuchi, Taichung 435, Taiwan
5
Buddhist Tzu Chi Bioinnovation Center, Tzu Chi Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
6
Department of Neurosurgery, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
7
Department of Pathology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention)
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Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive and malignant forms of brain tumors. Despite recent advances in operative and postoperative treatments, it is almost impossible to perform complete resection of these tumors owing to their invasive and diffuse nature. Several natural plant-derived products, however, have been demonstrated to have promising therapeutic effects, such that they may serve as resources for anticancer drug discovery. The therapeutic effects of one such plant product, n-butylidenephthalide (BP), are wide-ranging in nature, including impacts on cancer cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and cancer cell senescence. The compound also exhibits a relatively high level of penetration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Taken together, its actions have been shown to have anti-proliferative, anti-chemoresistance, anti-invasion, anti-migration, and anti-dissemination effects against GBM. In addition, a local drug delivery system for the subcutaneous and intracranial implantation of BP wafers that significantly reduce tumor size in xenograft models, as well as orthotopic and spontaneous brain tumors in animal models, has been developed. Isochaihulactone (ICL), another kind of plant product, possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including impacts on cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as anti-proliferative and anti-chemoresistance effects. Furthermore, these actions have been specifically shown to have cancer-fighting effects on GBM. In short, the results of various studies reviewed herein have provided substantial evidence indicating that BP and ICH are promising novel anticancer compounds with good potential for clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood-brain barrier (BBB); n-butylidenephthalide (BP); glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); isochaihulactone (ICL); O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT); protein kinase C (PKC); retinoblastoma protein (Rb); temozolomide (TMZ) blood-brain barrier (BBB); n-butylidenephthalide (BP); glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); isochaihulactone (ICL); O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT); protein kinase C (PKC); retinoblastoma protein (Rb); temozolomide (TMZ)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fan, H.-C.; Chi, C.-S.; Chang, Y.-K.; Tung, M.-C.; Lin, S.-Z.; Harn, H.-J. The Molecular Mechanisms of Plant-Derived Compounds Targeting Brain Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 395.

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