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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113679

Effect of Pretreatment with the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, CHA University School of Medicine, 59 Yatap-Ro, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam 13496, Korea
2
Department of Neurology, CHA University School of Medicine, 59 Yatap-Ro, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam 13496, Korea
Equally contributed as a first author.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of NADPH Oxidase on Neuron Death or on Neurogenesis)
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Abstract

Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH is necessary, considering the diseases high association with mortality and morbidity. Various preconditioning methods to enhance the beneficial properties of MSCs have been introduced. We suggested apocynin, a well-known nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, as a novel preconditioning regimen to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH. Rat ICH models were made using bacterial collagenase. 24 h after ICH induction, the rats were randomly divided into apocynin-preconditioned MSC-treated (Apo-MSC), naïve MSC-treated and control groups. Hematoma volume, brain edema, and degenerating neuron count were compared at 48 h after the ICH induction. The expression of tight junction proteins (occludin, zona occludens [ZO]-1) were also compared. Hematoma size, hemispheric enlargement and degenerating neuron count were significantly lower in the Apo-MSC group than in the naïve MSC group (p = 0.004, 0.013 and 0.043, respectively), while the expression of occludin was higher (p = 0.024). Apocynin treatment enhances the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH in the acute stage, through the improvement of the beneficial properties of MSCs, such as neuroprotection and the reinforcement of endovascular integrity of cerebral vasculature. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cells; intracerebral hemorrhage; prognosis; preconditioning; NADPH oxidase; stem cell therapy mesenchymal stromal cells; intracerebral hemorrhage; prognosis; preconditioning; NADPH oxidase; stem cell therapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Min, S.; Kim, O.J.; Bae, J.; Chung, T.N. Effect of Pretreatment with the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3679.

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