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Open AccessArticle

Regulatory Efficacy of the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae Spirulina platensis on Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in High-Fat Diet Rats

by Tian-Tian Li 1,†, Yuan-Yuan Liu 1,†, Xu-Zhi Wan 1, Zi-Rui Huang 1, Bin Liu 1,* and Chao Zhao 1,2,3,*
1
College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
Fujian Province Key Laboratory for the Development of Bioactive Material from Marine Algae, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou 362000, China
3
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103075
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gut Health)
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detector and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry was employed to analyze the major fatty acids in Spirulina platensis 95% ethanol extract (SPL95). The effects of SPL95 on hepatoprotection were evaluated, including liver tissue histopathology, liver, and serum biochemical analysis. The active principle of SPL95 revealed a hypolipidemic effect, as indicated by down-regulating the mRNA and protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, acetyl CoA carboxylase pathway, and upregulating adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α in liver. SPL95 enriched the beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Porphyromonadaceae, Barnesiella, and Paraprevotella. Treatment with SPL95 led to a decrease in microbes, such as Turicibacter, Romboutsia, Phascolarctobacterium, Olsenella, and Clostridium XVIII, which were positively correlated with serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but negatively correlated with the serum high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These results provide evidence that the fatty acid from SPL95 may be used as a novel adjuvant therapy and functional food to regulate gut microbiota in obese and diabetic individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; polyunsaturated fatty acids; lipid metabolism; AMPK signal pathway; gut microbiota Spirulina platensis; polyunsaturated fatty acids; lipid metabolism; AMPK signal pathway; gut microbiota
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Li, T.-T.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Wan, X.-Z.; Huang, Z.-R.; Liu, B.; Zhao, C. Regulatory Efficacy of the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae Spirulina platensis on Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in High-Fat Diet Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3075.

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