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Considerations of AOX Functionality Revealed by Critical Motifs and Unique Domains

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102972
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
An understanding of the genes and mechanisms regulating environmental stress in crops is critical for boosting agricultural yield and safeguarding food security. Under adverse conditions, response pathways are activated for tolerance or resistance. In multiple species, the alternative oxidase (AOX) genes encode proteins which help in this process. Recently, this gene family has been extensively investigated in the vital crop plants, wheat, barley and rice. Cumulatively, these three species and/or their wild ancestors contain the genes for AOX1a, AOX1c, AOX1e, and AOX1d, and common patterns in the protein isoforms have been documented. Here, we add more information on these trends by emphasizing motifs that could affect expression, and by utilizing the most recent discoveries from the AOX isoform in Trypanosoma brucei to highlight clade-dependent biases. The new perspectives may have implications on how the AOX gene family has evolved and functions in monocots. The common or divergent amino acid substitutions between these grasses and the parasite are noted, and the potential effects of these changes are discussed. There is the hope that the insights gained will inform the way future AOX research is performed in monocots, in order to optimize crop production for food, feed, and fuel. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental stress; wheat; barley; rice; Trypanosoma brucei environmental stress; wheat; barley; rice; Trypanosoma brucei
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brew-Appiah, R.A.T.; Sanguinet, K.A. Considerations of AOX Functionality Revealed by Critical Motifs and Unique Domains. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2972. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102972

AMA Style

Brew-Appiah RAT, Sanguinet KA. Considerations of AOX Functionality Revealed by Critical Motifs and Unique Domains. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(10):2972. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102972

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A.T.; Sanguinet, Karen A. 2018. "Considerations of AOX Functionality Revealed by Critical Motifs and Unique Domains" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 10: 2972. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102972

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