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Role of KCa3.1 Channels in Modulating Ca2+ Oscillations during Glioblastoma Cell Migration and Invasion

Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06134 Perugia, Italy
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102970
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
Cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma (GBM), the most lethal form of primary brain tumors, are critically dependent on Ca2+ signaling. Increases of [Ca2+]i in GBM cells often result from Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), promoted by a variety of agents present in the tumor microenvironment and able to activate the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate PLC/IP3 pathway. The Ca2+ signaling is further strengthened by the Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) currents sustained by Orai/STIM channels, meant to replenish the partially depleted ER. Notably, the elevated cytosolic [Ca2+]i activates the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K (KCa3.1) channels highly expressed in the plasma membrane of GBM cells, and the resulting K+ efflux hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. This translates to an enhancement of Ca2+ entry through Orai/STIM channels as a result of the increased electromotive (driving) force on Ca2+ influx, ending with the establishment of a recurrent cycle reinforcing the Ca2+ signal. Ca2+ signaling in migrating GBM cells often emerges in the form of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, instrumental to promote key processes in the migratory cycle. This has suggested that KCa3.1 channels may promote GBM cell migration by inducing or modulating the shape of Ca2+ oscillations. In accordance, we recently built a theoretical model of Ca2+ oscillations incorporating the KCa3.1 channel-dependent dynamics of the membrane potential, and found that the KCa3.1 channel activity could significantly affect the IP3 driven Ca2+ oscillations. Here we review our new theoretical model of Ca2+ oscillations in GBM, upgraded in the light of better knowledge of the KCa3.1 channel kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity, the dynamics of the Orai/STIM channel modulation, the migration and invasion mechanisms of GBM cells, and their regulation by Ca2+ signals. View Full-Text
Keywords: KCa3.1 channels; glioblastoma; cell migration; calcium oscillations; mathematical model KCa3.1 channels; glioblastoma; cell migration; calcium oscillations; mathematical model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Catacuzzeno, L.; Franciolini, F. Role of KCa3.1 Channels in Modulating Ca2+ Oscillations during Glioblastoma Cell Migration and Invasion. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2970.

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