Next Article in Journal
Contribution of Resident Stem Cells to Liver and Biliary Tree Regeneration in Human Diseases
Next Article in Special Issue
In situ Degradation and Characterization of Endosperm Starch in Waxy Rice with the Inhibition of Starch Branching Enzymes during Seedling Growth
Previous Article in Journal
Effective Sequential Combined Chemotherapy with Trifluridine/Tipiracil and Regorafenib in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Potential Role of Auxin and Abscisic Acid Balance and FtARF2 in the Final Size Determination of Tartary Buckwheat Fruit
Open AccessArticle

Germination and the Early Stages of Seedling Development in Brachypodium distachyon

Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, 28 Jagiellonska Street, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2916;
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Development, Dormancy and Germination)
Successful germination and seedling development are crucial steps in the growth of a new plant. In this study, we investigated the course of the cell cycle during germination in relation to grain hydration in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) for the first time. Flow cytometry was performed to monitor the cell cycle progression during germination and to estimate DNA content in embryo tissues. The analyses of whole zygotic embryos revealed that the relative DNA content was 2C, 4C, 8C, and 16C. Endoreplicated nuclei were detected in the scutellum and coleorhiza cells, whereas the rest of the embryo tissues only had nuclei with a 2C and 4C DNA content. This study was accompanied by a spatiotemporal profile analysis of the DNA synthetic activity in the organs of Brachypodium embryos during germination using EdU labelling. Upon imbibition, nuclear DNA replication was initiated in the radicle within 11 h and subsequently spread towards the plumule. The first EdU-labelled prophases were observed after 14 h of imbibition. Analysis of selected genes that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, such as those encoding cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins, demonstrated an increase in their expression profiles. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brachypodium distachyon embryo; cell cycle; EdU; germination; replication Brachypodium distachyon embryo; cell cycle; EdU; germination; replication
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wolny, E.; Betekhtin, A.; Rojek, M.; Braszewska-Zalewska, A.; Lusinska, J.; Hasterok, R. Germination and the Early Stages of Seedling Development in Brachypodium distachyon. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2916.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop