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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1961;

Evolution of RAD- and DIV-Like Genes in Plants

Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1000 West Cary Street, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Developmental genetic studies of Antirrhinum majus demonstrated that two transcription factors from the MYB gene family, RADIALIS (RAD) and DIVIRICATA (DIV), interact through antagonism to regulate floral dorsoventral asymmetry. Interestingly, similar antagonistic interaction found among proteins of FSM1 (RAD-like) and MYBI (DIV-like) in Solanum lycopersicum is involved in fruit development. Here, we report the reconstruction of the phylogeny of I-box-like and R-R-type clades, where RAD- and DIV-like genes belong, respectively. We also examined the homology of these antagonistic MYB proteins using these phylogenies. The results show that there are likely three paralogs of RAD-/I-box-like genes, RAD1, RAD2, and RAD3, which originated in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. In contrast, R-R-type sequences fall into two major clades, RR1 and RR2, the result of gene duplication in the common ancestor of both monocots and dicots. RR1 was divided into clades RR1A, RR1B, and RR1C, while RR2 was divided into clades RR2A/DIV1, RR2B/DIV2, and RR2C/DIV3. We demonstrate that among similar antagonistic interactions in An. Majus and So. lycopersicum, RAD-like genes originate from the RAD2 clade, while DIV-like genes originate from distantly related paralogs of the R-R-type lineage. The phylogenetic analyses of these two MYB clades lay the foundation for future comparative studies including testing the evolution of the antagonistic relationship of proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: RADIALIS-like genes; DIVIRICATA-like genes; gene duplication; angiosperms; phylogeny; antagonism of proteins; MYB gene family RADIALIS-like genes; DIVIRICATA-like genes; gene duplication; angiosperms; phylogeny; antagonism of proteins; MYB gene family

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gao, A.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, W. Evolution of RAD- and DIV-Like Genes in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1961.

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