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Recent Progress of Development of Optogenetic Implantable Neural Probes
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Optogenetic Investigation of Arousal Circuits

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1773;
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optogenetic Approaches in Neuroscience)
Modulation between sleep and wake states is controlled by a number of heterogeneous neuron populations. Due to the topological proximity and genetic co-localization of the neurons underlying sleep-wake state modulation optogenetic methods offer a significant improvement in the ability to benefit from both the precision of genetic targeting and millisecond temporal control. Beginning with an overview of the neuron populations mediating arousal, this review outlines the progress that has been made in the investigation of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application of optogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This overview is followed by a discussion of the future progress that can be made by incorporating more recent technological developments into the research of neural circuits. View Full-Text
Keywords: optogenetics; arousal; sleep-wake transitions; hypocretin; circuit investigation optogenetics; arousal; sleep-wake transitions; hypocretin; circuit investigation
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Tyree, S.M.; De Lecea, L. Optogenetic Investigation of Arousal Circuits. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1773.

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