Next Article in Journal
Prediction of Protein Hotspots from Whole Protein Sequences by a Random Projection Ensemble System
Next Article in Special Issue
Design and In Vitro Evaluation of a Cytotoxic Conjugate Based on the Anti-HER2 Affibody Fused to the Fc Fragment of IgG1
Previous Article in Journal
The Interplay between the Host Receptor and Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase
Previous Article in Special Issue
BRD9 Inhibition, Alone or in Combination with Cytostatic Compounds as a Therapeutic Approach in Rhabdoid Tumors
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1542;

Overcoming Oncogenic Mediated Tumor Immunity in Prostate Cancer

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Targeting Therapy and Selective Killing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [840 KB, uploaded 17 July 2017]   |  


Immunotherapy is being tested intensively in clinical trials for prostate cancer; it includes immune checkpoint inhibition, prostate specific antigen (PSA) vaccines and dendritic cell-based strategies. Despite increasing evidence for clinical responses, the consensus of multiple trials is that prostate cancers are poorly responsive to immunotherapy. Prostate cancer has a high degree of pathological and genetic heterogeneity compared to other cancer types, which may account for immunotherapeutic resistance. This hypothesis also implies that select types of prostate tumors may be differentially responsive to immune-based strategies and that the clinical stage, pathological grade and underlying genetic landscape may be important criteria in identifying tumors that respond to immune therapies. One strategy is to target oncogenic driver pathways in combination with immunotherapies with the goal of overcoming tumor immunity and broadening the number of patients achieving a clinical response. In this analysis, we address the hypothesis that driver oncogenic signaling pathways regulate cancer progression, tumor immunity and resistance to current immune therapeutics in prostate cancer. We propose that increased responsiveness may be achieved through the combined use of immunotherapies and inhibitors targeting tumor cell autonomous pathways that contribute towards anti-tumor immunity in patients with prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; immune checkpoint; prostate cancer; treatment resistance; tumor microenvironment immunotherapy; immune checkpoint; prostate cancer; treatment resistance; tumor microenvironment

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bryant, G.; Wang, L.; Mulholland, D.J. Overcoming Oncogenic Mediated Tumor Immunity in Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1542.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top