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Gut–CNS-Axis as Possibility to Modulate Inflammatory Disease Activity—Implications for Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany
Institute of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1526;
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics of Risk Factors for Disease)
In the last decade the role of environmental factors as modulators of disease activity and progression has received increasing attention. In contrast to classical environmental modulators such as exposure to sun-light or fine dust pollution, nutrition is an ideal tool for a personalized human intervention. Various studies demonstrate a key role of dietary factors in autoimmune diseases including Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In this review we discuss the connection between diet and inflammatory processes via the gut–CNS-axis. This axis describes a bi-directional communication system and comprises neuronal signaling, neuroendocrine pathways and modulation of immune responses. Therefore, the gut–CNS-axis represents an emerging target to modify CNS inflammatory activity ultimately opening new avenues for complementary and adjunctive treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut–CNS-axis; microbiota; immune system; multiple sclerosis; nutrition gut–CNS-axis; microbiota; immune system; multiple sclerosis; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fleck, A.-K.; Schuppan, D.; Wiendl, H.; Klotz, L. Gut–CNS-Axis as Possibility to Modulate Inflammatory Disease Activity—Implications for Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1526.

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