Next Article in Journal
Current Knowledge in Thyroid Cancer—From Bench to Bedside
Next Article in Special Issue
A Nutrigenomic Approach to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Pharmacogenomics of Targeted Agents for Personalization of Colorectal Cancer Treatment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maternal Macronutrient Consumption and the Developmental Origins of Metabolic Disease in the Offspring
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Gut–CNS-Axis as Possibility to Modulate Inflammatory Disease Activity—Implications for Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany
Institute of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1526;
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics of Risk Factors for Disease)
PDF [797 KB, uploaded 14 July 2017]


In the last decade the role of environmental factors as modulators of disease activity and progression has received increasing attention. In contrast to classical environmental modulators such as exposure to sun-light or fine dust pollution, nutrition is an ideal tool for a personalized human intervention. Various studies demonstrate a key role of dietary factors in autoimmune diseases including Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In this review we discuss the connection between diet and inflammatory processes via the gut–CNS-axis. This axis describes a bi-directional communication system and comprises neuronal signaling, neuroendocrine pathways and modulation of immune responses. Therefore, the gut–CNS-axis represents an emerging target to modify CNS inflammatory activity ultimately opening new avenues for complementary and adjunctive treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut–CNS-axis; microbiota; immune system; multiple sclerosis; nutrition gut–CNS-axis; microbiota; immune system; multiple sclerosis; nutrition

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fleck, A.-K.; Schuppan, D.; Wiendl, H.; Klotz, L. Gut–CNS-Axis as Possibility to Modulate Inflammatory Disease Activity—Implications for Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1526.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top