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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1390;

Macrophages and Phospholipases at the Intersection between Inflammation and the Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection

1,†,* , 1,†,* and 2,†,*
Confocal Microscopy Unit, Core Facilities, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
Center for Global Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4+ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity. In this context, monocytes/macrophages are increasingly recognized as an important source of inflammation, linked to HIV-1 disease progression and to non-AIDS complications, such as cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which are currently main challenges in treated patients. Lipid signaling plays a central role in modulating monocyte/macrophage activation, immune functions and inflammatory responses. Phospholipase-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis leads to the production of lipid mediators or second messengers that affect signal transduction, thus regulating a variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. In this review, we discuss the contribution of phospholipases to monocyte/macrophage activation in the context of HIV-1 infection, focusing on their involvement in virus-associated chronic inflammation and co-morbidities. View Full-Text
Keywords: monocyte/macrophage; phospholipases; HIV-1; inflammation monocyte/macrophage; phospholipases; HIV-1; inflammation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Spadaro, F.; Cecchetti, S.; Fantuzzi, L. Macrophages and Phospholipases at the Intersection between Inflammation and the Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1390.

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