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Open AccessReview

Immune Checkpoints as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Treatment

1
Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 47014 Meldola, Italy
2
Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 47014 Meldola, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061324
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Anti-tumor immunity is a new line of research for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. In this field, negative regulators of the immune system called immune checkpoints play a key role in limiting antitumor immunologic responses. For this reason, immune checkpoint-inhibiting agents, such as those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 receptor (PD1) and its ligand PD-L1, have been developed as antitumor drugs, producing interesting results in preclinical and clinical studies. We present an updated review of the biological background and clinical development of immune checkpoint inhibitors in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early trial results on PD1 and PD-L1 blockade appear promising, especially in CRC patients with microsatellite instability (MSI). Clinical trials are ongoing to confirm these preliminary results, evaluate combination strategies and identify biomarkers to predict which patients are most likely to benefit from, or show resistance to, the effects of checkpoint inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; microsatellite instability (MSI); programmed death-1 receptor (PD1); programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; microsatellite instability (MSI); programmed death-1 receptor (PD1); programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Passardi, A.; Canale, M.; Valgiusti, M.; Ulivi, P. Immune Checkpoints as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1324.

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