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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1294;

Age-Related Changes in Immunological and Physiological Responses Following Pulmonary Challenge

The Center for Heart and Lung Research, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Manhasset, New York, NY 11030, USA
The Elmezzi Graduate School of Molecular Medicine, Manhasset, New York, NY 11030, USA
Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York, NY 11549, USA
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Aging)
Full-Text   |   PDF [208 KB, uploaded 19 June 2017]


This review examines the current status of knowledge of sepsis and pneumonia in the elderly population and how the dynamics of the pulmonary challenge affects outcome and consequences. Led by an unprecedented shift in demographics, where a larger proportion of the population will reach an older age, clinical and experimental research shows that aging is associated with certain pulmonary changes, but it is during infectious insult of the lungs, as in the case of pneumonia, that the age-related differences in responsiveness and endurance become obvious and lead to a worse outcome than in the younger population. This review points to the neutrophil, and the endothelium as important players in understanding age-associated changes in responsiveness to infectious challenge of the lung. It also addresses how the immunological set-point influences injury-repair phases, remote organ damage and how intake of drugs may alter the state of responsiveness in the users. Further, it points out the importance of considering age as a factor in inclusion criteria in clinical trials, in vitro/ex vivo experimental designs and overall interpretation of results. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; pneumonia; remote organ damage; sepsis aging; pneumonia; remote organ damage; sepsis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Miller, E.J.; Linge, H.M. Age-Related Changes in Immunological and Physiological Responses Following Pulmonary Challenge. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1294.

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