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Open AccessArticle

Galectins-1, -3, and -7 Are Prognostic Markers for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients

1
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Campus Großhadern: Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich and Campus Innenstadt: Maistr. 11, Munich 80337, Germany
2
LMU Munich, Department of Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 142, Munich 80337, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This study is dedicated to the memory of Susanne Kunze (1948–2015).
Academic Editor: Armando Bartolazzi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061230
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Galectins in Cancer and Translational Medicine)
There is a tremendous need for developing new useful prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins which have been suggested to serve as prognostic factors for various cancer types. In this study, the presence of Galectin-1, -3, and -7 was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer specimens by immunochemical staining. Staining was evaluated in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells as well as the peritumoral stroma using a semi quantitative score (Remmele (IR) score). Patients’ overall survival was compared between different groups of Galectin expression. Galectin (Gal)-1 and -3 staining was observed in the peritumoral stroma as well as the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells, while Gal-7 was only present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Patients with Gal-1 expression in the cytoplasm or high Gal-1 expression in the peritumoral stroma showed reduced overall survival. Nuclear Gal-3 staining correlated with a better outcome. We observed a significantly reduced overall survival for cases with high Gal-7 expression and a better survival for Gal-7 negative cases, when compared to cases with low expression of Gal-7. We were able to show that both tumor and stroma staining of Gal-1 could serve as negative prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. We were able to confirm cytoplasmic Gal-7 as a negative prognostic factor. Gal-3 staining in the nucleus could be a new positive prognosticator for ovarian cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galectin-1; Galectin-3; Galectin-7; ovarian cancer; overall survival Galectin-1; Galectin-3; Galectin-7; ovarian cancer; overall survival
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schulz, H.; Schmoeckel, E.; Kuhn, C.; Hofmann, S.; Mayr, D.; Mahner, S.; Jeschke, U. Galectins-1, -3, and -7 Are Prognostic Markers for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1230.

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