Next Article in Journal
Cellular Consequences of Diminished Protein O-Mannosyltransferase Activity in Baker’s Yeast
Next Article in Special Issue
Galectin-3 Performance in Histologic and Cytologic Assessment of Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Gene Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer: Specificity, Issues and Hopes
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1230;

Galectins-1, -3, and -7 Are Prognostic Markers for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Campus Großhadern: Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich and Campus Innenstadt: Maistr. 11, Munich 80337, Germany
LMU Munich, Department of Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 142, Munich 80337, Germany
This study is dedicated to the memory of Susanne Kunze (1948–2015).
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Armando Bartolazzi
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Galectins in Cancer and Translational Medicine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3923 KB, uploaded 8 June 2017]   |  


There is a tremendous need for developing new useful prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins which have been suggested to serve as prognostic factors for various cancer types. In this study, the presence of Galectin-1, -3, and -7 was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer specimens by immunochemical staining. Staining was evaluated in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells as well as the peritumoral stroma using a semi quantitative score (Remmele (IR) score). Patients’ overall survival was compared between different groups of Galectin expression. Galectin (Gal)-1 and -3 staining was observed in the peritumoral stroma as well as the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells, while Gal-7 was only present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Patients with Gal-1 expression in the cytoplasm or high Gal-1 expression in the peritumoral stroma showed reduced overall survival. Nuclear Gal-3 staining correlated with a better outcome. We observed a significantly reduced overall survival for cases with high Gal-7 expression and a better survival for Gal-7 negative cases, when compared to cases with low expression of Gal-7. We were able to show that both tumor and stroma staining of Gal-1 could serve as negative prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. We were able to confirm cytoplasmic Gal-7 as a negative prognostic factor. Gal-3 staining in the nucleus could be a new positive prognosticator for ovarian cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galectin-1; Galectin-3; Galectin-7; ovarian cancer; overall survival Galectin-1; Galectin-3; Galectin-7; ovarian cancer; overall survival

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schulz, H.; Schmoeckel, E.; Kuhn, C.; Hofmann, S.; Mayr, D.; Mahner, S.; Jeschke, U. Galectins-1, -3, and -7 Are Prognostic Markers for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1230.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top