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Open AccessArticle

Galectins-1, -3, and -7 Are Prognostic Markers for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Campus Großhadern: Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich and Campus Innenstadt: Maistr. 11, Munich 80337, Germany
LMU Munich, Department of Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 142, Munich 80337, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This study is dedicated to the memory of Susanne Kunze (1948–2015).
Academic Editor: Armando Bartolazzi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1230;
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Galectins in Cancer and Translational Medicine)
There is a tremendous need for developing new useful prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins which have been suggested to serve as prognostic factors for various cancer types. In this study, the presence of Galectin-1, -3, and -7 was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer specimens by immunochemical staining. Staining was evaluated in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells as well as the peritumoral stroma using a semi quantitative score (Remmele (IR) score). Patients’ overall survival was compared between different groups of Galectin expression. Galectin (Gal)-1 and -3 staining was observed in the peritumoral stroma as well as the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells, while Gal-7 was only present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Patients with Gal-1 expression in the cytoplasm or high Gal-1 expression in the peritumoral stroma showed reduced overall survival. Nuclear Gal-3 staining correlated with a better outcome. We observed a significantly reduced overall survival for cases with high Gal-7 expression and a better survival for Gal-7 negative cases, when compared to cases with low expression of Gal-7. We were able to show that both tumor and stroma staining of Gal-1 could serve as negative prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. We were able to confirm cytoplasmic Gal-7 as a negative prognostic factor. Gal-3 staining in the nucleus could be a new positive prognosticator for ovarian cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galectin-1; Galectin-3; Galectin-7; ovarian cancer; overall survival Galectin-1; Galectin-3; Galectin-7; ovarian cancer; overall survival
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schulz, H.; Schmoeckel, E.; Kuhn, C.; Hofmann, S.; Mayr, D.; Mahner, S.; Jeschke, U. Galectins-1, -3, and -7 Are Prognostic Markers for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1230.

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