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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 946;

Unconventional Secretion of Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer

International Research Center, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo 01508-010, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano and Antonio Gaballo
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unconventional Proteins and Membranes Traffic)
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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are abundant cellular proteins involved with protein homeostasis. They have both constitutive and inducible isoforms, whose expression levels are further increased by stress conditions, such as temperature elevation, reduced oxygen levels, infection, inflammation and exposure to toxic substances. In these situations, HSPs exert a pivotal role in offering protection, preventing cell death and promoting cell recovery. Although the majority of HSPs functions are exerted in the cytoplasm and organelles, several lines of evidence reveal that HSPs are able to induce cell responses in the extracellular milieu. HSPs do not possess secretion signal peptides, and their secretion was subject to widespread skepticism until the demonstration of the role of unconventional secretion forms such as exosomes. Secretion of HSPs may confer immune system modulation and be a cell-to-cell mediated form of increasing stress resistance. Thus, there is a wide potential for secreted HSPs in resistance of cancer therapy and in the development new therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat shock proteins; cancer; unconventional secretion; exosomes heat shock proteins; cancer; unconventional secretion; exosomes

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Santos, T.G.; Martins, V.R.; Hajj, G.N.M. Unconventional Secretion of Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 946.

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